There are three principal words translated "LIFE".  Their shades of meaning are to be distinguished as follows : --
  1. zoe = life in all its manifestations; from the life of God down to the lowest vegetable.  It is life in activity, and thus especially is the opposite of death.  It involves resurrection life and eternal life;  and hence, as such, is the "gift of God" (Rom. 6:23.  1John 5:12).  For the same reason its verb zao is frequently used of, and put for, resurrection life (Matt. 9:18.  Mark 16:11.  Luke 24:5, 23.  John 11:25, 26.  Acts 1:3;  9:41;  25:19.  Rom. 6:10;  14:9.  2Cor. 13:4.  Rev. 1:18;  2:8;  13:14;  20:4, 5).

  2. bios = life, as lived, manner of life; life as led, &c.; zoe being life as one experiences it; bios as others see it.  This is used therefore, only of mankind, who not only live but lead lives.  Hence the differences between ZO-ology and BIO-graphy.  Zoe is life in its principle;  bios is life in its manifestations (Luke 8:14).  Bios is also put by Fig. Metonymy (of Adjunct.), Ap. 6, for livelihood, or that which supports animal life (Luke 8:43).  It occurs eleven times (Mark 12:44.  Luke 8:14, 43;  15:12, 30;  21:4.  1Tim. 2:2.  2Tim. 2:4.  1Pet. 4:3.  1John 2:16;  3:17).

  3. psuche = the breath of animal life; one of the manifestations of zoe, common to all living animals.  In one passage (Isa. 10:18, the Heb. nepesh (Ap. 13), Gr. psuche) is applied to vegetable life.  It is used of the living individual as such.  For its various renderings and usages, see Ap. 110.

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