133. THE SYNONYMOUS WORDS
"SEE", "LOOK", "BEHOLD", ETC.
The following twenty-three words are to be thus distinguished and understood
- eldon = to see: implying not the mere act of
looking, but the actual perception of the object: thus differing from blepo
(No. 5, below).
- idou is the Imperative Aorist Middle of eidon
(No. 1, above) = See ! Behold ! calling attention to something external
to one's self.
- ide is the Imperative Active of the Second Aorist
eidon (No. 1, above), as calling attention to something present.
- oida = to know intuitively, without effort
or experience; to have perceived or apprehended. Cp. the verb ginosko,
which means to get to know, by effort, experience, or revelation.
See the two verbs in the same verse (John 8:55; 13:7. 1John 5:20),
and Ap. 132. I. 1.
- blepo = to have the power of seeing, to use the
eyes, to look at; used of the act of looking, even though nothing be seen.
Hence, to observe accurately and with desire; used of mental vision, and
implying more contemplation than horao (See No. 8, below).
- anablepo. This is blepo (No. 5 above),
with the Preposition ana prefixed (see Ap. 104. i) = to look up
(e.g. Mark 8:24), to look again; hence, to recover sight (e.g. Matt. 11:5).
- emblepo = to look in or into, fix the eyes upon,
or look intently. It is blepo (No. 5 above) with the Preposition
en (Ap. 104. viii) prefixed, and denotes a looking or regarding
fixedly. Hence, to know by inspection (e.g. Matt. 19:26. Mark
8:25. Acts 22:11).
- horao = to perceive with the eyes. It is
used to bodily sight, and with special reference to the thought as to the
object looked at. It thus differs from No. 5, above, in the same
way as No. 1 does, and from No. 1 in that it has regard to the object
while No. 1 refers to the subject.
(a). opsomai is used as the Future
of horao (No. 8 above), and has regard to the object presented to
the eye, and to the subject which perceives, at the same time. It
denotes, not so much the act of seeing (like Nos. 5 and 8 above), but the
state and condition of the one to whose eye the object is presented.
Hence, to truly comprehend.
- aphorao = to look away from others at one who
is regarded earnestly (e.g. Heb. 12:2, where alone it occurs). It
is No. 8, with apo (Ap. 104. iv) prefixed.
- optanomai = to behold, and in Passive, to appear
or be seen. It is a rare form of the Present, formed from No. 8,
as above. Occurs only in Acts 1:3.
- theoreo = to be a spectator of, to gaze at,
or on, as a spectacle. Our Eng. word "theatre" is from the same root.
Hence, it is used of bodily sight, and assumes the actual presence of the
object on which the gaze is fixed, and that it is a continued and prolonged
gaze. It differs from No. 8 above, as that may be only the act of
- theaomai is, in meaning, like No. 11 above,
but differing from it in that No. 11 has regard to the object gazed
upon, while this has regard to the subject who gazes. Hence,
it is used of gazing with a purpose; to see with desire, or regard with
- historeo = to inquire : i.e. to have an
interview with a person with a view to becoming personally acquainted through
conversation. Occ. only in Gal. 1:18.
- epeidon. This
is No. I. 1, with epi
= upon (Ap. 104. ix) prefixed; to look upon. It is the second Aorist
of ephorao (No. I. 8), with epi = upon (Ap 104. ix) prefixed.
It occurs only in Luke 1:25 and Acts 4:29.
- epopteuo = to look over, overlook, watch, and
thus be an eyewitness of. Occ. only in 1Pet. 2:12; 3:2. It
is derived from No. I. 8, above, with epi (Ap. 104. ix) prefixed.
- anatheoreo. It is No. I. 11, with ana
(Ap. 104. i) prefixed. Hence it = to gaze on with purpose and attention.
Occ. only in Acts 17:23 and Heb. 13:7.
- katanoeo = to perceive with the senses, referring
to the object of observation rather than to the act of getting to
know (as with ginosko, Ap. 132. I. ii). It has regard to the
conscious action of the mind in getting to see or understand.
- anablepo. See No. I. 6, above.
- parakupto = to stoop down beside (para.
Ap. 104. xii) anything in order to look at it more closely.
- prosdokao = to watch for (pros.
Ap. 104. xv) anything, expect and thus look or wait for.
- epiblepo. This is No. I. 5, above, with
epi = upon (Ap. 104. ix) prefixed.
- episkeptomai = to look upon (Ap. 104. ix) as
thought to select; to look out, so as to select.
- atenizo = to fix the eyes intently upon.
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